Home

X ray image quality factors

Digital Radiography (DR) and Image Quality - Medical

  1. However, there are several factors that affect x-ray image quality. Brightness - intensity of light representing individual pixels in an image Contrast - differences in brightness between light and dark areas of image Subject contrast - is the ratio of the radiation intensities in different parts of an image due to the quality of the subject being imaged Resolution - recorded sharpness of structures on image Spatial resolution - how far apart two objects must be in order to be seen.
  2. Factors affecting Quality and Quantity of X-ray beam 1. Vinay Desai M.Sc Radiation Physics KIDWAI MEMORIAL INSTITUTE OF ONCOLOGY 2. X-ray tube  X-ray tube is an device for generating X-rays by accelerating electrons to high energies and causing... 3.  High voltage is applied b/w cathode and.
  3. Blurring will reduce the image quality and also reduce the diagnostic quality of the image. The factors affecting sharpness are: • movement. • the resolution of the imaging system (film-screen combination or VDU) • the geometry of the imaging system (relationship between the focus, patient and imaging system)
  4. Among the factors that affect image detail are the distance between the source of xray and the image receptor, referred to as the source/image distance (SID); the distance between the object and the image receptor, referred to as the object/ image distance (OID); the size of the screen crystals and the thickness of the phosphor layer when intensifying screens are used, or the size of the pixels in digital systems; the focal spot size ( the smaller the focal spot the greater the detail); and.
  5. And in our presentation we will discuss the imaging chain components which affect the image quality including: 1. X-ray Tube 2. Patient 3. Receptors 4. Post-processing X-Ray Tube Related Artifacts 1-Overexposure (too much mAs), or Underexposure (too little mAs): Cause: By increasing or decreasing the x-ray beam current mAs which influence the amount of darkness on the image
  6. In practical terms, the various factors that can influence overall film-captured image quality can be divided into factors related to: • The X-ray equipment • The image receptor - film or film/screen combinatio

Additional image quality factors include tonal response (contrast, etc.), color response, and many others. The output of the pipeline may be compared to the minimally-processed lens+sensor measurements.The effect of the pipeline on subjective image quality can be highly scene- and application-dependent, making it difficult to assign good or bad rankings Quantum Mottle  Very fast screens have higher quantum mottle because it takes fewer x-rays to make the image. 10. Speed  Resolution and noise are intimately connected with speed.  While the speed of the images receptor is not apparent on the image, it influences both resolution and noise. 11

PPT - [Radiography] Technique - Exposure Factors

Factors that influence spatial resolution, as well as performance of x-ray-based medical imaging modalities, are described [4-7]. What Is Resolution? Blur and Sharpness Most radiologists have an intuitive sense of what constitutes poor resolution and can easily recognize a blurred image. Resolu-tion, however, is sometimes taken to mea Image quality is not a single factor but is a composite of at least five factors: contrast, blur, noise, artifacts, and distortion, as shown above. The relationships between image quality factors and imaging system variables are discussed in detail in later chapters

Factors affecting Quality and Quantity of X-ray bea

The prime factors that affect x-ray quantity are milliamperage-seconds (mAs), kilovoltage (kVp), source-image receptor distance (SID), and filtration. The factors that affect x-ray quality are kilovoltage and filtration. Note that kilovoltage and filtration affect both quantity and quality (Box 7-1). Filtration was discussed in Chapter 5 The first and most obvious technical factor that influences beam quality is the kVp (kiloVolt potential). This is a parameter which is easy to change on the system and a major control knob for the image quality in x-ray radiography and CT imaging Reducing noise: anything that increases number of x-ray photons (x-ray beam) produced and absorbed and the number of light photons (at the image receptor) produced: Increasing dose (mA) Using an image receptor with a greater attenuation coefficient; Making the image receptor thicker; Using larger detector elements; Factors that don't reduce noise

X-ray Image Formation and Contrast

Image quality Radiology Ke

مجموعة محاضرات لطلاب الهندسة الحيوية الطبية. الشرح باللغة العربية مع الانجليزيةA lecture series for Biomedical Engineering. The greater any of these factors are, the more the x ray beam will be attenuated. The greater these qualities of the tissue or object/structure being imaged, the more x rays will be attenuated, and the more radiopaque' the tissue/object/structure will appear on the final image Section 9.8.2: image quality indicators. The sensitivity of an industrial radiograph is determined by the use of one or more image quality indicators (IQIs). The IQI will either be a hole type IQI containing three different sized holes or a wire type IQI containing six different sized wires assess image quality and system performance. Image quality parameters Th ere are several parameters that characterise the quality of digital images. Resolution, noise, and artefacts are the main parameters of image quality.6 Some studies include blur factors which relate so far to the spatial resolution.7,8 Figure 1 summarises these parameters and their infl uences Key x-ray choices include the voltage across the x-ray tube (kilovoltage), the size of the x-ray tube current (milliamperes), and the imaging exposure time (seconds) [6, 7]. Although artifacts in radiographic imaging are of obvious importance for image quality, these are beyond the scope of this article [ 8 ]

J

Radiographic Image Quality: Optical Density, Image Detail

  1. Detecting Image Quality in Medical Imaging. Image quality is crucial for proper diagnosis from a medical imaging study. Most institutions have ongoing quality improvement procedures and policies to improve and maintain diagnostically acceptable image quality. However, in a busy clinical environment, often times suboptimal images are acquired.
  2. X-ray scatter (collimation, kVp, air gap, thickness, anti-scatter grids) factors every technologist should know. By Brian Nett, PhD / Physics, CT, X-Ray X-ray scatter due to Compton Scatter generates background haze in x-ray images and there is a desire to reduce the scatter impact on image quality
  3. Assessing image quality for chest X-ray imaging performed through glass. A mobile Carestream DRX Revolution X-ray unit (Carestream Health, US) was used for all simulated experiments. Clinical images were obtained on a range of mobile X-ray units including a GE AMX4 (GE Healthcare, US) with a Carestream DRX digital detector retrofit, a.
  4. The image quality of digital radiography systems is influenced by the interplay of many sources of image degradation. These include technology-dependent sources of image blur and noise. This paper systematically investigates the relative influence of the most common sources of image degradation for the entire digital radiography image chain.
  5. The article: Diagnostic X-Ray Imaging Quality Assurance: An Overview appeared in The Canadian Journal of Medical Radiation Technology, October 1996, 27(4), pgs. 171-177. Abstract A basic diagnostic imaging quality assurance program is a regulatory requirement in many provinces Footnote 1 , Footnote 2 Footnote 3 Footnote 4 Footnote 5 and in.
  6. Finally, x-ray source size was measured to be 0.6±0.25 mm with the penumbra imaging method; this focal spot size is comparable with medical x-ray tubes. Image quality parameters of the plasma focus device show that this device could be considered as a useful source of x-ray for portable radiography systems
  7. imally-processed lens+sensor measurements.The effect of the pipeline on subjective image quality can be highly scene- and application-dependent, making it difficult to assign good.

Image Quality Control is an important factor that contributes to the improvement of patient care and overall diagnostic accuracy. Our purpose was to elaborate Quality Control Charts and demonstrate the importance of image quality control in a radiology department. A total of 37 random samples, composed of 30 x-ray exams each, were selected and analyzed One factor that effects contrast of the X-ray image, is the photon flux density of the X-ray beam, which is mainly dependent on the mA level. The smaller the focal spot size the less photon flux can be produced. Therefore, the optimum image quality is produced by a balanced approach between focal spot size and the amount of mA utilized X-ray source for transmission imaging = X-ray tube . Materials for the filament and target Tungsten: most commonly used Molybdenum: used in digital mammography that requires very low energy X-rays = less heat Factors affecting SNR 1. X-ray tube current and exposure time. The factors that affect x-ray quantity affect. exposure of the image receptor similarly. The Effect of Increasing mAs. X-ray Quantity Is proportionately increased and Image Receptor Exposure Is increased. The disadvantage of x-ray beam filtration can be reduced image contrast when using screen-film caused by

approximatelyPoisson in X-ray imaging. In X-ray imaging, each quanta carries much more energy hν = hc/λ than in visible light, so there are many fewer quanta, and these quanta are the main source of variability between experiments. Noise is most meaningfulif it is put in perspectiveby comparingto signal strength As mentioned in Chapter 1, image quality and the amount of detail shown on a radiographic film depends on several factors including: • Contrast • Image geometry • Characteristics of the X-ray beam • Image sharpness and resolution Quality Factor. The quality factor of a radiation type is defined as the ratio of the biological damage produced by the absorption of 1 Gy of that radiation to the biological damage produced by 1 Gy of X-rays or gamma rays. The Q of a certain type of radiation is related to the density of the ion tracks it leaves behind it in tissue X-ray Quality is a measurement of the penetrating capability of x-ray beam. Penetrability describes the distance an x-ray beam travels in matter. X-ray quality is numerically represented by half-value layer. HVL is the thickness of absorbing material needed to reduce the x-ray intensity (quantity) to half its original value The x-ray spectrum is defined as the energy distribution of the radiation produced in an x-ray exposure. The x-ray spectrum has a major impact on image quality and radiation dose delivered to patients. The authors explored the effects of three key factors on x-ray spectra: generator type, peak tube potential, and filtration

Maintaining a constant image CNR for each lesion, the patient energy imparted was also computed to identify the x-ray tube voltage that minimized the radiation dose. For adults, increasing the tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV changed the iodine HU from 2.62 x 10(5) to 1.27 x 10(5), the fat HU from -138 to -108, and the muscle HU from 37.1 to 33.0 This chapter provides an introduction to the nature of this image and to some of the factors that affect its quality and perception. Nature of the radiographic image Traditionally the image was produced by the X-rays passing through an object (the patient) and interacting with the photographic emulsion on a film , which resulted in blackening.

14: The quality of radiographic images and quality

description, factors that influence image quality, and associated imaging artifacts with each modality. X‐ray‐based imaging modalities Plain radiography, mammography, fluoroscopy, and computed tomography (CT) all use X‐rays as the source of generating images. All these modalities employ an X‐ray tube to generate the images scattering. This thickness limits the X-ray absorption. Due to the low light scattering of CsI a thicker phosphor layer can be used without jeopardizing the sharpness of the imaging system. Higher X-ray absorption is possible with DR detectors using CsI needle crystalline phosphors. This results in lower dose and better image quality means to reduce exposure, increase and maintain diagnostic image quality, and limit health care costs. In many instances, state radiation control personnel are the primary source of such information and should offer assistance as necessary. John P. Winston, Chairperson Committee on Quality Assurance in Diagnostic X-ray X-Ray Physics: Magnification and Collimation in Radiography. This simulation illustrates the effects of changing various settings on a fluoroscopy or radiography (x-ray) system on image quality and patient dose. Note that it does not take into account factors such as kV, filtering, anti-scatter grid, patient thickness, or patient anatomy Decreasing phase resolution will reduce the image quality and scan time. Reducing phase resolution will increase the pixel size therefore the SNR will increase considerably. In addition to the basic resolution image quality can be manipulated by changing the phase resolution. Similar image quality can be obtain from 384x384 matrixes and 512x256.

Image Quality Factors imates

Image quality - SlideShar

In an x-ray machine with a tungsten target, increasing the kVp from 100 to 150 will increase all of the following except: A. The total number of x-rays emitted. B. The maximum energy of the x-rays. C. The average energy of the spectrum. D. The energy of the characteristic x-rays. E. The heat units generated (for the same mAs). Sample Q's 2002. a. principally controls the quantity of x-rays produced. b. has little impact on penetrability of the beam through the patient. c. is a measure of the electron speed through the x-ray tube from anode to cathode. d. affects both x-ray beam quantity and quality. D. Affects both x-ray beam quantity and quality The x-ray tube current determines the rate at which x-rays are produced in the x-ray tube (i.e., photons per second). The total number of x-ray photons that are acquired in the 1000 or so projections as the x-ray tube rotates 360º degrees is proportional to the product of the mA and the rotation time (seconds), or the mAs Poor image quality can result in delayed diagnosis, improper treatment, repeat imaging, and unnecessary radiation exposure. Ultimately, the goal of the radiology quality assurance program is to ensure that the information provided by X-ray equipment is of high quality, accurate, and timely 06. X-ray production 07. X-ray beam 08. Factors affecting image quality 09. Medical exposure BSS; 10. Patient dose assessment 11. Quality assurance; 12. Shielding and X-ray facility design 13. Occupational exposure: Part 1-2; 14. Radiation exposure in pregnancy; 15. Optimization of protection in radiography: Part 1-2; 16

Produce optimum image quality for diagnosis. Reduce the cost of radiology operations. Reading assignment - Chapter 10 of the Seeram text Characteristics of Image Quality. Although the technological advances in digital radiography have lead to improved efficiency and patient care, it is important to be aware of the factors that affect image quality Image quality on plain radiographs and fluoroscopy is limited by attenuation and increased photon scatter as the beam penetrates through larger patients. Raising the x-ray tube voltage and current increases the penetration through excess tissue but reduces image contrast In X-ray crystallography, resolution is the smallest distance between crystal lattice planes that is resolved in the diffraction pattern. High numeric values of resolution, such as 4 Å, mean poor resolution, while low numeric values, such as 1.5 Å, mean good resolution. 2.05 Å is the median resolution for X-ray crystallographic results in.

Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays, gamma rays, or similar ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation to view the internal form of an object.Applications of radiography include medical radiography (diagnostic and therapeutic) and industrial radiography.Similar techniques are used in airport security (where body scanners generally use backscatter X-ray) Imaging screen response nonuniformity to X-ray radiation depends on the screen quality. It may cause false defects in NDT. Three kinds of nonuniformity above and the isoplanatic distribution can be removed or corrected by means of the method presented in the paper. A majority of impulse noise is originated from X-ray radiation effects on CCD The prime factor that controls the wavelength of the x-ray beam is: Kilovoltage: The prime factor that controls the rate at which x-rays are produced: Milliamperage: The mAs value of an exposure is varied to provide control of: Optical Density: The imaging system that produces an instantaneous digital image on a monitor: Digital Radiography(DR.

X-Ray-Based Medical Imaging and Resolutio

  1. X-ray images. Web-based Repeat/Reject Analytics (RRA) from GE Healthcare gives you insight into the root causes of rejected X-ray images so you can implement targeted improvement training. While RRA delivers actionable data for any user, it is especially valuable for three types of hospitals. First, those hospital
  2. This completely updated second edition of Radiation Exposure and Image Quality in X-ray Diagnostic Radiology provides the reader with detailed guidance on the optimization of radiological imaging. The basic physical principles of diagnostic radiology are first presented in detail, and their application to clinical problems is then carefully explored
  3. The head of the X-ray machine must not move when an exposure is made. The head of the patient must be supported at the same time. 3. Image receptor i) the larger the silver grains the poorer the outline of the image. ii) intensifying screens have an adverse affect on sharpness. X-ray
  4. imally an X-ray high voltage generator, an X-ray control device, a tube-housing assembly, a beam-limiting device and the necessary supporting structures
  5. This is the original image at actual resolution size of 1280 x 960 pixels. I have a photo shot with a camera resolution of 1280 x 960 pixels. The original image is displayed along with a zoomed in.
  6. The L value for this image was 1.8, corresponding to a dynamic range of 60:1; it is generally true that increased kV values, corresponding to more penetrating x-ray beams, will reduce the dynamic range of the detected x-ray beam intensities at the image receptor. Note that the image appearance at 120 kV is similar to those at 60 kV and 75 kV
  7. Kilovolt Peak or kVp is the technical factor known to control the quality of the x-ray beam produced by the machine. It also controls the contrast or grayscale of the ray image produced. The higher the kVp, the lower the contrast. What is the 15% Rule in radiography

Image Characteristics and Quality - Sprawl

NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY III X-ray Procedures Manual August 1988 Westat, Inc. 1650 Research Boulevard Rockville, Maryland 2085 Conversion Factor:also used to express gain definition: Ratio of Luminanceat the output phosphor to the Incident X-ray Air Kerma Rateat the input phosphor typically 9-27 cd.m-2/µGy.s-1 8.2 FLUOROSCOPIC EQUIPMENT 8.2.1 The Fluoroscopic Imaging Chain Diagnostic Radiology Physics: a Handbook for Teachers and Students -chapter 8, 1 Image processing • Relationships between radiographic factors and image appearance are decoupled. Controlling factors don't have same impact on image. mAs ≠ Density / brightness kVp ≠ Contrast • Application of imaging physics foundation is more critical . 1 Left: X-ray spectra; Blue, Tube beam spectrum.Orange, transmitted beam spectrum (scaled to have the same intensity).Middle: X-ray intensity passing through the patient (white = strongest radiation, black = weakest).Right: Simulated image contrast with fat, muscle, and iodinated contrast in a vessel. This contrast does not take into account the effects of scatter The mAs (milliampere seconds) determines the number of x-rays produced per unit time and the number of x-rays reaching the film determines the degree of blackening of the film. In order to take a quality radiograph that details as much diagnostic information as possible the following factors must be considered

SID. SID stands for Source to Image Distance. This is the distance between the source of photons (anode) and the image receptor. The larger the SID, the less penumbra or blur that occurs. Therefore, an increased SID increases recorded detail. When possible, maximize SID for the purpose of recorded detail. Sometimes though, tabletop restrictions. Image Quality. One major advantage digital radiography has over conventional film is the higher resolution. If exposure factors remain within plus or minus 30 percent, current algorithms will produce a quality image. Digital images contain large sets of data. More data allows technicians and doctors to magnify, annotate and make inquiries about. Plain Film X-Ray - Principles - Interpretation - TeachMeAnatomy. Plain film x-ray is the most common diagnostic radiological modality used in hospitals today. They were first discovered and used for imaging purposes by Wilhelm Röntgen on 8th November 1895, when he took an image of his wife's hand. In this article, we shall look at the basic.

If the x-ray unit is not properly functioning, the unit must be serviced as retested before used again for diagnostic procedures. Linearity tests are performed to monitor patient dose and image quality. Variation in output intensity during diagnostic exposures can result in unnecessary dose to the patient due to repeats from poor quality images Chest x-rays are generally taken when the patient is in the inspiratory phase of the respiration cycle, in layman's termed having breathed in. This has an important effect on the quality of the x-ray. When the x-ray beams pass through the anterior chest onto the film, it is the ribs closest to the film, the posterior ribs, that are the most. Introduction to the calculation of structure factors S. C. Wallwork. In X-ray crystallography the structure factor F(hkl) of any X-ray reflection (diffracted beam) hkl is the quantity that expresses both the amplitude and the phase of that reflection. It plays a central role in the solution and refinement of crystal structures because it represents the quantity related to the intensity of the.

When using x-ray film for determining x-ray field/image receptor align-ment, care must be exercised in discerning the x-ray field edge at the cathode side since the penumbra at this edge can be. Image Considerations. The usual objective in radiography. Radiography - The process of making a radiograph. is to produce an image showing the highest amount of detail possible. This requires careful control of a number of different variables that can affect image quality. Radiographic sensitivity. Sensitivity - A measure of the ability to. The maximum clearance between the table and image intensifier is approximately 45 cm. For larger patients, radiation dose is severely influenced by the patient's body habitus. Recall that half value layer is the amount of tissue that will reduce the quantity of X-rays to half the original number In many cases, for example CT, an air calibration is usually carried out at least on a daily basis. Certain x-ray manufacturers also build an X-ray tube warm -up procedure into the boot-up of the system, which has to be completed before the system will function. If the system is used only on day shifts, then suc Image gently: Image quality and dose assessment • ANCOVA analysis showed that x-ray protocol is the only parameter that effects effective dose significantly (p<0.0001) by a factor of 5 for the same examination. • The dose-saving possibilities of digita

Principles of Exposure and Image Quality Radiology Ke

  1. ations contribute the largest fraction t
  2. Other factors to consider for a good quality chest x-ray are centering (the trachea should be equidistant between the clavicular heads), penetration (the spine should be just transparent through the cardiac density), and inspiratory effort (at full inspiratory effort, the anterior end of the right 6th rib should point mid-way along the right.
  3. Various factors affect the quality and intensity of the beam. kV - the greater the potential difference across the tube, the faster the electrons move and the higher the energy of the X-Ray photons. Properties of radiographic film and formation of the radiographic image. X-Rays will produce a pattern of varying depths of blackness on the film
  4. Image quality On a monthly basis, images (produced using either a PSP or a SSD) should be compared with a good quality reference image. If there is a visual deterioration in image quality, corrective action should be taken. Image uniformity for intra-oral radiographs should be performed on a 1-3 monthly basis
X ray production & emission

Beam Quality, Beam Quantity (mA, KVp, HVL) For Radiologic

When the x-ray strikes a crystal, it causes the crystal to phosphoresce, and the light exposes the film secondarily. This process of recording the x-ray image is much more efficient than using film alone and markedly reduces radiation exposure to the subject (sometimes by a factor of 100 or more) and the operator 2. Suggested recommendations regarding improved quality control for X-ray equipment used to conduct CR and DR X-ray examinations, including methods to reduce patient exposure without a compromise in clinical image quality 3. Tabulations of suggested radiological phantoms for use in evaluating X-ray systems 4 To create an X-ray image, radiographers project radiation-ray photons through the body. factors contribute to the image quality of an X-ray. We already started working on this issue in an.

Image quality - Radiology Caf

X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a nondestructive technique for visualizing interior features within solid objects, and for obtaining digital information on their 3-D geometries and properties. A CT image is typically called a slice, as it corresponds to what the object being scanned would look like if it were sliced open along a plane. The detector elements size and X-ray focal spot size are the main factors, which determine the spatial resolution of any X-ray imaging system. In theory, the spatial resolution of the system can be calculated separately for detector resolution and the X-ray focal spot unsharpness. The detector resolution is defined as the projected widt X-ray Source - CT X-ray tube X-ray tubes produce the xray photons that create the CT image. Their design is a modification of a standard rotating anode tube, such as the type used in angiography. Tungsten, with an atomic number of 74, is often used for the anode target material because it produces a higher intensity xray beam non-interacting and small-angle scattered photons which carries the x ray image (post-patient radiation that hits the detector, makes image). pg 13 fluoro. Biological effects from radiation follows a ____ model. (nonlinear nonthreshold, linear threshold, linear nonthreshold, nonlinear threshold) Since the quality factor QF for x-rays.

Chest X-ray Quality - Tutorial introductio

  1. X-ray tubes project onto a receptor. The part of the body to be evaluated is placed between the x-ray tube and the receptor. Different tissues of the body absorb the x-ray to varying degrees depending on their consistency. This leaves a 'shadow' that is converted to an image. What Is Radiographic Positioning
  2. al is used to photograph small animals such as kittens, puppies, and fish for animal use. I recommended our 5KW portable X-ray machine for customers. Our 5KW portable X-ray machine: 1. Using high-frequency inverter technology to produce, stable high-voltage output can obtain good image quality; 2
  3. 17: The quality of radiographic images and quality
  4. Image Quality Factors (Key Performance Indicators) imates
X-ray Production/ dental coursesRadiation physicsAn audit of root canal treatments completed by students
  • أعراض انسحاب الجابابنتين.
  • مجلس الدايت الألماني.
  • مباريات إيفرتون.
  • افرازات صفراء في الشهر التاسع.
  • قسيمة الزواج بتطلع بعد ـــــــــاد ايه.
  • نصائح بعد الولادة الطبيعية.
  • الجيش الإسلامي في العراق قناص بغداد.
  • كتابات أفلاطون.
  • كيف اجعل الواتس اب غير متصل.
  • التهاب الأذن اليسرى.
  • Copy and paste emoji.
  • مرض الزهري الخلقي.
  • أسماء قبائل أفغانستان.
  • العاب دراغون بول مجانية على الانترنت.
  • مجلس الدايت الألماني.
  • كتاب عمر وامل pdf.
  • هذا أنا علا الفارس.
  • نصائح للحامل برحم ذو قرنين.
  • بوستات عن الاحترام.
  • تصنيع البروتين في الخلية pdf.
  • زلاجة كفرات.
  • سباكة المعادن.
  • دمج صورتين مع بعض اون لاين.
  • الدحرجة الخلفية على عارضة التوازن.
  • قصيدة عن اخوي مسجون.
  • الوشق في السعودية.
  • ماذا اكتشف ابن النفيس.
  • شراب مضاد حيوي للاطفال.
  • شكل البدر.
  • ابحاث كلية التربية الرياضية جامعة سوهاج.
  • دجاج محمر بالفرن.
  • كرتون غامبول.
  • البس ايه على البحر.
  • ديزني لاند اورلاندو العرب المسافرون.
  • رؤية القرد في المنام للمتزوجة.
  • أقوال جوزيف غوبلز.
  • كاميرات مراقبة تعمل على الموبايل.
  • تكرار الصور في الفوتوشوب.
  • صاروخ يارس الروسي.
  • العنجاص العراقي.
  • رسائل نكت للمتزوجين.